Across large areas, the surface water and groundwater resour-
ces of Turkmenistan are extremely scarce, due to the country’s predominantly desert climate and average annual precipitation of 100-150 mm. The Amu Darya River is the main source of water in the northern part of the country, while the southern regions near the Kopet Dag Mountains are mainly served by the Karakum Canal, which was constructed in the middle of 20th century.
Other water resources are the Murgab and the Tedjen rivers, which run into Turkmenistan from Afghanistan and Iran, and are mainly supplied by runoff from the northern Hindukush Mountains. Smaller rivers, especially those from the Kopet Dag Mountains, run dry during the summer months. Groundwater reserves are modest and at present are little used...