Population growth and climate change are factors influencing the decrease in water resources of the transboundary Padshaota River, which runs through Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. As such, there is an urgent need to improve how the river’s water resources are managed. The Padshaota River originates in Kyrgyzstan in the Chatkal Range, flows through Uzbekistan’s Namangan Oblast, and then flows back into Kyrgyzstan. The river is fed by mountain glaciers, has a mean basin elevation of about 2,000 metres above sea level, is about 130 km in length, and has a catchment area of 443 km2. Average annual discharge is estimated at 5.5 m3 per second. Around 130,000 people live in the Uzbekistan part of the river basin. The total area of irrigated land in the whole river basin stands at 27,800 ha, of which 24,000 ha are located in Uzbekistan and 3,800 ha in Kyrgyzstan. According to the water allocation scheme agreed in 1980 between the two riparian countries, 36% of the available water resources of the Padshaota River are used by Kyrgyzstan and 64% by Uzbekistan. Water measurement and allocation is carried out at the Oporniy hydropost located inside Kyrgyzstan, 20 km from the Uzbekistan border. The objective of the programme is to improve the livelihoods of local farmers and water users in the Padshaota river basin by developing sustainable water management and integrated cooperation in water resources management between the two riparian countries.